International instruments and guidelines


African Union (1990) African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.


Council of Europe (2005) Recommendation Rec(2005)5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the rights of children living in residential institutions. Paris: Council of Europe. 

Council of Europe (2010) Guidelines on child-friendly justice.

HCCH (1993) Hague Convention of 29 May 1993 on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (Hague Adoption Convention).

HCCH (1996) Hague Convention of 19 October 1996 on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children.

ICRC (2004) Inter-Agency Guiding Principles on Unaccompanied and Separated Children. 

UNICEF, OHCHR (2011) Call for action to end placement of babies and young children 0-3 in institutions.

UNICEF, UN Global Compact, and Save the Children (2012) Children’s Rights and Business Principles.

United Nations (1985) United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice ("The Beijing Rules")

United Nations (1986) Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally. Geneva: United Nations.

United Nations (1984) Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

United Nations (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC):

United Nations (1993) Principles relating to the Status of National Institutions (The Paris Principles).

United Nations (1997) UNHCR Guidelines on Policies and Procedures in Dealing with Unaccompanied Children Seeking Asylum 

United Nations (2006) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

United Nations (2006) United Nations study on violence against children.  

United Nations (2008) UNHCR Guidelines on Determination of the Best Interests of the Child. 

UN Human Rights Council (2008) Report of 8th session, special event on draft Guidelines on Alternative Care of Children.

United Nations (2011) UNCRC Optional protocol on a communications procedure (establishing an individual complaints mechanism). 

United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child.


International Social Service, Oak Foundation, SOS Children's Villages International, unicef, ATD Fourth World, Better Care Network, Family for every child, ngo group for the crc, PEPFAR, RELAF, Save the Children, USAID